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Airbag Particle Method (APM)


  • Alexan­der Gromer

Airbag Particle Method (APM)


  • You should have a ba­sic knowl­edge of LS-DY­NA®.


This class first presents the fun­da­men­tals to cre­ate an airbag mod­el in LS-DY­NA. We will give a brief overview of the uni­form pres­sure (UP) ap­proach. Then we will in­tro­duce the the­o­ret­i­cal back­ground and im­ple­men­ta­tion of the new­er airbag par­ti­cle method (APM). This lat­ter method is based on a par­ti­cle ap­proach us­ing mol­e­c­u­lar ki­net­ic the­o­ry and has be­come state-of-the-art for all airbag ap­pli­ca­tions due to its high ac­cu­ra­cy, nu­mer­i­cal ro­bust­ness, and ef­fi­cien­cy.

Be­sides the de­scrip­tion of *AIRBAG_­PAR­TI­CLE, as well as the re­lat­ed key­words re­gard­ing de­f­i­n­i­tion of the con­trol vol­ume, num­ber of par­ti­cles, de­f­i­n­i­tion of vents, gas prop­er­ties, etc., we will dis­cuss fur­ther mod­el­ing as­pects af­fect­ing the airbag’s be­hav­ior. We will present state-of-the-art tech­niques as well as most re­cent im­ple­men­ta­tions in LS-DY­NA with their in­flu­ence on the de­ploy­ment be­hav­ior.


  • In­tro­duc­tion
    • Ba­sics
    • Dif­fer­ent as­pects of airbag mod­el­ing in LS-DY­NA
    • UP method
      • Avail­able key­words re­lat­ed to dif­fer­ent UP mod­els in LS-DY­NA
      • Wang-Nefske ap­proach, hy­brid gas gen­er­a­tors, & jet­ting de­f­i­n­i­tion for UP airbag mod­els
      • Avail­able key­words & ap­pli­ca­tion of APM in LS-DY­NA
    • Mer­its & lim­its of UP mod­el­ing
  • APM
    • In­flu­ence of dif­fer­ent pa­ra­me­ters on the airbag’s be­hav­ior
    • Mer­its & lim­its of APM mod­el­ing
  • Ma­te­r­i­al de­f­i­n­i­tion & ref­er­ence geom­e­try
    • De­f­i­n­i­tion & in­flu­ence of a ref­er­ence geom­e­try
    • Ma­te­r­i­al de­f­i­n­i­tion us­ing *MAT_­FAB­RIC (non-lin­ear­i­ty, anisotropy, poros­i­ty, & val­i­da­tion)
  • Con­tact de­f­i­n­i­tion & fold­ing sim­u­la­tion
  • Mod­el set-up
    • Mod­el­ing ad­vice re­gard­ing APM airbag mod­els
    • Dis­cus­sion of tank tests & airbag val­i­da­tion
    • Process chain for airbag mod­el­ing
    • Post pro­cess­ing of re­sults
    • Ex­am­ples